Zahra Abbassi
Dr. Mossaddeq's 27 months tenure of office is one of the most tumultuous and critical periods of Iran. In Iranian legation's visit to The Hague, Dr. Mossaddeq was the head of Iranian legation. The Belgian attorney, Henry Rollin was Iran's advisor in the court. In the first session of the court, Dr. Mossaddeq delivered an eloquent speech, revealing the imperialistic policies of the British in Iran and proving the incompetence of The Hague to consider the dispute. Before his leaving for The Hague he had ordered the suspension of all elections.
On June 24, Dr. Mossaddeq returned but despite great enthusiasm of people, he found the country in great tumult. At this time, Dr. Imami, whose opposition to Mossaddeq was known to all was elected president of Majlis. On July 4, Dr. Mossaddeq tendered his resignation on the formation of new Majlis according to the majlis's tradition. Throughout the country there were held demonstrations in favor of Dr. Mossadeq's taking the cabinet. The Senate held that it left it to the Shah's views. Eventually, the Senate vote for Dr. Mossaddeq under pressures from religious leaders including Ayttollah Khanssari and Ayatollah Kashani. Meanwhile the Tudeh party continued its opposition to Mossaddeq.
Dr. Mossaddeq decided to form his cabinet. He demanded six months full powers and asked the Shah give him full control of armed forces by making him minister of war. The Shah refused and, Dr. Mossaddeq resigned on July 16.  Again there was provided a second chance for Qavam to receive a vote of inclination from the Majlis. Great demonstrations were held and Ayattollah Kashani called for general strikes to overthrow Qavam. On July 21, serious rioting broke out in Tehran. The whole town was closed. Crowds of people were moving towards the center of city and Baharistan square. The police opened fire and many people were injured. Although the security forces had the upper hand in the town, the orders came from the court to withdraw the police and army. Thus the city was in full possession of the angry crowd.
On the following day the Majlis voted for Dr. Mossaddeq. At the same time the verdict of the international court of The Hague announced its incompetence to considering the oil dispute betweenIran and the British. It was a great triumph for Dr. Mossaddeq and all Iranians. Now the Shah had no choice except to capitulate to Dr. Mossaddeq's demands; confirmed him in his office as prime minister, appointed him as minister of war, and accepted his nominee as chief of staff. The Majlis ratified July 21 as the national movement day.
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