E’temadossaltaneh I, Hajj Ali Khan Hajeboddowleh

E’temadossaltaneh I, Hajj Ali Khan Hajeboddowleh

Son of Hossein Khan Moqaddam Maraqe’I, Hajj Ali Khan Hajeboddowleh served at Mohammad Mirza, FathAli Shah’s crown prince’s court when he was 10 years old. When Mohammad Shah came to the throne, he entered his court and was engaged in administrative services and court affairs...

Niloofar Kasra


Son of Hossein Khan Moqaddam Maraqe’I, Hajj Ali Khan Hajeboddowleh served at Mohammad Mirza, FathAli Shah’s crown prince’s court when he was 10 years old. When Mohammad Shah came to the throne, he entered his court and was engaged in administrative services and court affairs.


His family was engaged in trade from many long years ago in Azerbaijan region. His father served in the crown prince, Abbas Mirza’s court as head servant. Then he came to Tehran to the royal port house of FathAli Shah. Then he was appointed head aid-de-camp of the Shah and was sent as envoy to various missions in European courts.


Mohammad Hossein Khan Etemadossaltaneh (Etemadassltaneh II) writes in meratolboldan that the ascendants of Moqaddam family reaches to Chingiz Khan Moghol’s son Juji Khan. However, it seems that this sort of lineage making is vain and is only aimed at gaining socio political prestige. Apparently, this family was one of the Kurdish tribes residing in Maragheh and Zanjan who entered the administrative and army services since Safavids.


It even seems that the assignment of this family name (Moqaddam meaning being in the front) was due to their being pioneers of battles in those periods.


This family also cooperated with Abass Mirza during Iran and Russian war and even did not hesitate to concede all their movable and immovable properties to Abbas Mirza, when he was threatened by the Russian army and was in dire straits. So Hajj Ali Khan Hajeboddowleh in the crown prince, Mohammad Mirza’s court who entered Tehran’s court, due to some dishonesty was expelled from the court, and his properties were confiscated. However, through Mohammad Shah’s influential wife, Mahd e Olia’s mediation, he was released from prison and left for the holy cities of Karbala and Najaf and remained there until the death of Mohammad Shah. 


According to Abbas Mirza MalekAra (Nasseraddin Shah’s half brother), he was Mohammad Shah’s cashier and treasurer. Gradually he became steward and got the very important title of Khan.


The Tehran government and surrounding districts were under his control to provide for the expenses of royal cuisine. During his service at Mohammad Shah’s court he enjoyed the support and trust of Mahd e Olia, the Shah’s first wife which cost him to be accused of embezzlement by Fatemeh Khanum Chehrighi, the Shah’s second and favorite wife.  So that he was beaten and all his wealth was confiscated.


Etemadassltaneh writes in his memoirs about his father that "three years before Mohammad Shah’s death, my father who was a royal steward was rejected due to slander, and in eight hours of horror, he came to Qom from Niavaran of Shemiran and took refuge in the holy shrine of her holiness Massoumeh, but the Shah ordered to detain him by force and bring to Tehran. He was in prison for one year, but they did not kill him but he was exiled to the holy Shrine.  


After the death of Mohammad Shah, he immediately came to Tehran and was welcomed by Mahd e Olia and Agha Mohammad Khan Nouri and shortly after gained great influence in the court, and became one of Mirza Taghi Khan’s strong opponents. Among other conspirators, he enjoyed Mahd e Olia’s full confidence and was commissioned to go to Kashan and kill Amir Kabir, right after he got his death verdict. After accomplishing his mission, he was promoted chamberlain. However, he was removed after the removal of Mirza Agha Khan Nouri from premiership.


Except tarikh e khormoji, there was no reference to the story of Amir Kabir’s murder in most historical books of that period. Etemadossaltaneh, son of Hajj Ali Khan and the historian of Nasseraddin Shah’s period in his works, meratolboldan and Montazam e Nasseri describes Amir Kabir’s death as a natural event and due to some illness. However, he could not neglect the truth and in his Sadrol tavarikh and Khalse refers to his murder.


It seems that Etemadossaltaneh (Mohammad Hassan Khan) endeavors to lighten the role of his father in Amir Kabir’s murder for the sake of his family honor. He published the order for the murder of Amir Kabir, and announced his father as a servant of the court who was to implement his lord’s wish.


The courtiers were shocked by the news of Amir’s death. Subsequent to that event, Mahd e Olia’s associates gained promotions. Particularly HajjAli Khan became head servant, head butler, head masonry and head of ceremonies for foreign envoys. He was even appointed as minister of justice. The irony is that a murderer becomes responsible for maintaining justice in the country. However, his vast powers led him to financial embezzlements, so that he was removed from his office and was fined for 100000 tomans.


Hajj Ali Khan was forgiven during Nasseraddin Shah’s travel to Soleminieh and holy Shrines through Mahde Olia’s mediation. He was appointed to Khorassan’s government and was entitled Zia’olmolk. Later on the provinces of Lorestan and Bakhtiari was added to his jurisdiction and he became Amir tuman. However, he was recalled to Tehran due to the rising of Arabs of Khuzestan and Shushter in protest against his injustice.

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